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TESS delivers new insights into an ultrahot world – Phys.org

Measurements from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) have enabled astronomers to greatly improve their understanding of the bizarre environment of KELT-9 b, one of the hottest planets known.

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Astronomers perplexed by “Odd Radio Circles,” a freshly discovered, quite unusual room phenomenon – Sprout Wired

Astronomers feel they have found out a new, weird form of cosmic item that is invisible to all wavelengths of…

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Astronomers feel they have found out a new, weird form of cosmic item that is invisible to all wavelengths of light except radio. 
The odd circular objects in query have been unofficially dubbed “Odd Radio Circles” (ORCs) three of them were uncovered in a new information gathered during a preliminary study by the Australian Sq. Kilometre Array Pathfinder, a radio telescope array in Western Australia. A fourth Odd Radio Circle was learned when researchers sifted by means of previous details from 2013.
The new phenomenon is the concentrate of a new paper posted on the preprint internet site arXiv, which was submitted to Nature Astronomy by a team of global astronomers. It is still to be peer-reviewed.
“Listed here we report the discovery of a class of round element in radio images that do not appear to correspond to any of these acknowledged types of object or artefact, but somewhat seem to be a new class of astronomical item,” the authors of the paper publish.
The ORCs are mostly circular in form, with the exception of 1 formed like a disc, and they can’t be witnessed with infrared, optical, or X-ray telescopes. A few of them are brighter close to the edges. 
The round mother nature of the ORCs has led to some curiosity around their genuine character. “Circular features are perfectly-recognised in radio astronomical illustrations or photos, and normally signify a spherical item this kind of as a supernova remnant, a planetary nebula, a circumstellar shell, or a deal with-on disc this kind of as a protoplanetary disc or a star-forming galaxy,” the scientists write. 
Astronomers initially thought the ORCs might have been a telescope glitch which is why the discovery of the fourth ORC, from data that was collected in 2013 by the Big MetreWave Radio Telescope in India, was important to the locating. That observation ruled out the chance that the phenomenon was just an artifact of the certain Australian radiotelescope array.
So what could these strange, circular radio objects be? In the paper, the researchers propose a list of scenarios. To start with, they rule out that ORCs could be remnants of a supernova, largely since of how uncommon ORCs are. Galactic planetary nebulas are ruled out, much too, for the exact same purpose. “[I]f the ORCs are

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Astronomers perplexed by “Odd Radio Circles,” a freshly found out, quite exceptional room phenomenon – haveeruonline

Astronomers believe that they have learned a new, weird variety of cosmic item that is invisible to all wavelengths of light-weight except radio.  The

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Astronomers believe that they have learned a new, weird variety of cosmic item that is invisible to all wavelengths of light-weight except radio. 
The peculiar circular objects in query have been unofficially dubbed “Odd Radio Circles” (ORCs) 3 of them had been found in a modern facts amassed for the duration of a preliminary survey by the Australian Sq. Kilometre Array Pathfinder, a radio telescope array in Western Australia. A fourth Odd Radio Circle was found out when scientists sifted via previous information from 2013.
The new phenomenon is the concentrate of a new paper revealed on the preprint web page arXiv, which was submitted to Nature Astronomy by a team of intercontinental astronomers. It is but to be peer-reviewed.
“Below we report the discovery of a course of round aspect in radio photos that do not look to correspond to any of these known kinds of object or artefact, but somewhat surface to be a new course of astronomical object,” the authors of the paper compose.
The ORCs are mostly circular in shape, with the exception of one particular formed like a disc, and they are unable to be observed with infrared, optical, or X-ray telescopes. 3 of them are brighter all around the edges. 
The circular character of the ORCs has led to some curiosity above their correct nature. “Round features are perfectly-recognised in radio astronomical photos, and usually represent a spherical object this sort of as a supernova remnant, a planetary nebula, a circumstellar shell, or a facial area-on disc this sort of as a protoplanetary disc or a star-forming galaxy,” the researchers produce. 
Astronomers in the beginning considered the ORCs may perhaps have been a telescope glitch which is why the discovery of the fourth ORC, from data that was collected in 2013 by the Large MetreWave Radio Telescope in India, was key to the acquiring. That observation dominated out the risk that the phenomenon was merely an artifact of the precise Australian radiotelescope array.
So what could these odd, circular radio objects be? In the paper, the researchers recommend a listing of eventualities. Very first, they rule out that ORCs could be remnants of a supernova, generally mainly because of how scarce ORCs are. Galactic planetary nebulas are dominated out, far too, for the similar purpose. “[I]f the ORCs are

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Incredible Sahara Dust Plume Sweeping Across The Atlantic Is Largest on Record – ScienceAlert

Dust plumes are a natural phenomenon, part of Earth’s nutrient cycle. They occur when high-velocity winds pick up tiny dry particles from the Earth’s surface and carry them long distances. Every summer, dust plumes from Africa’s Sahara desert travel

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Dust plumes are a natural phenomenon, part of Earth’s nutrient cycle. They occur when high-velocity winds pick up tiny dry particles from the Earth’s surface and carry them long distances. Every summer, dust plumes from Africa’s Sahara desert travel across the Atlantic Ocean.
They’re usually not this big, and they often sink into the ocean. But this one’s coming right to America.
Keen satellite eyes have been watching the plume as it developed and headed out to sea. The ESA’s Copernicus Sentinel and Aeolus satellites have tracked the plume’s progress. The plume is so big, it’s earned the nick-name Godzilla.
The meteorological name for the plume is the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The SAL forms between late Spring and early Autumn. Strong surface winds pick up the dust and carry it into the air and over the Atlantic Ocean.
If conditions are right, the dust can be transported into the upper troposphere, and carried all the way to the Caribbean or the United States, an 8,000 km (5,000 mile) journey.
Records of the Saharan dust plume go back about 20 years, and this one ranks as one of the biggest. It’s common for these dust plume to reach the US, but this one is extraordinarily large. The NOAA says that the plume is about 60 percent to 70 percent larger than average.
The image below is from June 19th, 2020. It’s a composite image from the Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite and the Aeolus Satellite. The base layer is bright yellow aerosol index from 5P and Aeolus aerosol and cloud formation is laid on top.
Desert dust plume over the Atlantic observed by Aeolus and Sentinel-5P. (ESA)
The Aeolus data is unique because it’s the first satellite designed to acquire profiles of Earth’s winds on a global basis. It helps build much more sophisticated forecasts and models, partly by determining wind heights with greater accuracy. It can determine the height at which the dust layer is travelling, and in this image, Aeolus shows that most of the dust was 3 – 6 km (1.8 – 3.7 miles) above the ground.
The different space agencies now have a fleet of satellites monitoring Earth, and they can closely watch things like this dust plume. Each satellite can have a different mix of instruments, and together they give a more complete understanding of Earth’s atmospheric happenings.
Saharan dust plume over Sao Filipe. (Copernicus Sentinel/ESA/CC BY-SA 3.0)
Though its appearance in satellite imagery is foreboding, the dust plume might actually be good news. According to the NOAA, these plumes can actually inhibit the formation of hurricanes. And it can also prevent the ones that do form from becoming more powerful and destructive.
The dust is also a nutrient source for phytoplankton, the tiny marine plants that float near the surface of the ocean. Phytoplankton is critical to the food web, providing food for animals higher up the food chain. Phytoplankton is also photosynthetic, creating oxygen for the biosphere.
The dust plumes also replenish nutrients as far away as the Amazon rain forest. The heavy and frequent rains there can deplete essential nutrients. Without these plumes, the Amazon likely wouldn’t exhibit such stunning biodiversity and may not have such an intricate food web.
But there is bad news associated with the dust plume. The haze can trigger air quality alerts, and can be a health risk, especially for people with underlying health conditions. That’s partly because the dust has travelled so far that many of the larger particles have fallen to the surface. What’s left is the smaller particles, which are most dangerous to people.
But for many people in the path of the plume, the part they’ll remember is the sunsets. With all that dust in the air, the sunsets and sunrises will look stunning.
This article was originally published by Universe Today. Read the original article.

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